Il a fondé l'ordre religieux de Bayramilik et a défendu la croyance d'après laquelle Dieu apparaît dans le cœur des hommes. [384] Endangered languages in Turkey include Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Cappadocian Greek, Gagauz, Hértevin, Homshetsma, Kabard-Cherkes, Ladino (Judesmo), Laz, Mlahso, Pontic Greek, Romani, Suret, Turoyo, Ubykh, and Western Armenian. [81][82][83] Following the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, the victorious Allied Powers sought to partition the Ottoman state through the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. Remaining challenges include the need to further increase wastewater treatment, to reduce the high level of non-revenue water hovering around 50% and to expand access to adequate sanitation in rural areas. People within the 15–64 age group constitute 67.4 percent of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 25.3 percent; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 7.3 percent. In line with the aforementioned article of the Turkish Constitution and related laws, the court system in Turkey can be classified under three main categories; which are the Judicial Courts, Administrative Courts and Military Courts. [154][needs update], In the years of government by the AKP and Erdoğan, particularly since 2013, the independence and integrity of the Turkish judiciary has increasingly been said to be in doubt by institutions, parliamentarians and journalists both within and outside of Turkey; due to political interference in the promotion of judges and prosecutors, and in their pursuit of public duty. [13][15] The Seljuk Turks began migrating in the 11th century, and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. [259] Southeastern Turkey is located within the northern plains of Upper Mesopotamia. [357] Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available, because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity. Le gouvernement multiplie les autorisations d’ouverture d’école religieuses (officiellement prévu pour former des imams). [451] Turkey is a member of the European Higher Education Area and actively participates in the Bologna Process. [420][421] Two of the five major episcopal sees of the Pentarchy (Constantinople and Antioch) instituted by Justinian the Great in 531 AD[422] were located in present-day Turkey during the Byzantine period.[423]. The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa, which was the capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1413. H. Davison, Essays in Ottoman and Turkish History, 1774-1923 – The Impact of West, Texas 1990, pp. [34] The settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age. [14], Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC,[30] while Çatalhöyük is a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. [274] Snow falls on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but usually melts in no more than a few days. Numerous important cities were founded by these colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (now İzmir) and Byzantium (now Istanbul), the latter founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC. Le Premier ministre a dénoncé une "tentative de coup de force militaire". These were initially about Ottoman territorial expansion and consolidation in southeastern and eastern Europe; but starting from the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), they became more about the survival of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun to lose its strategic territories on the northern Black Sea coast to the advancing Russians. [326][327] As well as Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1933, several other airlines operate in the country. [462] The miniatures were usually not signed, perhaps because of the rejection of individualism, but also because the works were not created entirely by one person; the head painter designed the composition of the scene, and his apprentices drew the contours (which were called tahrir) with black or colored ink and then painted the miniature without creating an illusion of depth. [274] Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C (−22 to −40 °F) can occur in eastern Anatolia. En juillet 2000, N. Erbakan est condamné à la prison pour « incitation à la haine raciale et religieuse ». The Asian part of the country mostly consists of the peninsula of Anatolia, which consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, between the Köroğlu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Mais l'islam n'est pas religion dÉtat, contrairement aux pays musulmans. The words tasvir or nakış were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish. [352] In 1927, when the first official census was recorded in the Republic of Turkey, the population was 13.6 million. Les zélateurs de l'adhésion de la Turquie à l'Union européenne font régulièrement valoir que cet Etat serait l'un des rares – sinon le seul – des pays musulmans bordant l'Union qui ait eu accès à la… [68] From the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also fought twelve wars with the Russian Tsardom and Empire. La communauté juive de Turquie a la possibilité de pratiquer librement sa religion. [518], Yeşilçam is the sobriquet that refers to the Turkish film art and industry. Les chiites sont surtout alevis, mais il existe une petite minorit… [406] Non-denominational Muslims have been estimated to range from 2%[407] to 14% of the population. [446] The overall adult literacy rate in 2011 was 94.1 percent; 97.9 percent for males and 90.3 percent for females. The Ankara-Konya line became operational in 2011, while the Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in 2014. La hiérarchie religieuse intégrée dans la bureaucratie ottomane a disparu avec l’ancien empire. [123][124][125] Steps towards decentralisation[when?] L'islam est la plus grande religion en Turquie selon l'État, avec 99,8% de la population étant initialement enregistrée par l'État comme musulmane, pour toute personne dont les parents ne sont d'aucune autre religion officiellement reconnue et les 0,2% restants sont chrétiens ou adhérents d'autres religions officiellement reconnues. It consists of the construction of a spaceport, the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations. Manuel du capitaliste en Turquie: aperçu des fonds et obligations d'état, exposé succinct des banques, établissemens de crédit, sociétés industrielles et des compagnies de chemins de fer de l'Empire Ottoman, à l'usage du rentier, banquier, négociant, etc - Ebook written by O. Iskender. [444] Access to high-quality school heavily depends on the performance in the secondary school entrance exams, to the point that some students begin taking private tutoring classes when they are ten years old. Islam institutionnel, islam parallèle De l'Empire ottoman à la Turquie contemporaine (XVIe-XXe siècles). Local administrations were established to provide services in place and the government is represented by the province governors (vali) and town governors (kaymakam). [183] Diplomatic relations with Israel were also severed after the Gaza flotilla raid in 2010, but were normalised following a deal in June 2016. [211][212] Turkish Armed Forces have overseas military bases in Albania,[213] Iraq,[214] Qatar,[215] and Somalia. [274] The coastal areas bordering the Black Sea have a temperate oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. [362] The Kurds are concentrated in Turkish Kurdistan, making up a majority in the provinces of Ağrı, Batman, Bingöl, Bitlis, Diyarbakır, Elâzığ, Hakkari, Iğdır, Mardin, Muş, Siirt, Şırnak, Tunceli and Van; a near majority in Şanlıurfa Province (47%); and a large minority in Kars Province (20%). [274] Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (16 inches), with actual amounts determined by elevation. [497][498] Beşiktaş won the 2011–12 FIBA EuroChallenge,[499] and Galatasaray won the 2015–16 Eurocup. [340], Water supply and sanitation in Turkey is characterised by achievements and challenges. Dans une Turquie aujourd’hui gouvernée par les ... c’est l’islam qui est aujourd’hui la religion de 99,99% des habitants du pays. In the early years of the 21st century, the chronically high inflation was brought under control; this led to the launch of a new currency, the Turkish new lira (Yeni Türk Lirası) in 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. L’islam sunnite 1La Turquie est le seul État peuplé majoritairement de musulmans dans lequel l’islam n’est pas religion d’État et où la laïcité est inscrite, depuis 1937, dans la Constitution.Nombreux sont les observateurs qui estiment qu’elle pourrait à ce titre servir de modèle de démocratie séculière aux autres États islamiques . [53], The House of Seljuk originated from the Kınık branch of the Oghuz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, in the Yabgu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy, to the north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, in the 9th century. [392] The CIA World Factbook reports that Islam is the religion of 99.8% of the population, with Sunni Muslims as the largest sect, while 0.2% are Christians and Jews. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire became a world power. [495] The Turkish national football team has won the bronze medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup and UEFA Euro 2008.[496]. [197] There is a dispute over Turkey's maritime boundaries with Greece and Cyprus and drilling rights in the eastern Mediterranean. [citation needed] Turkey's support for Northern Cyprus in the Cyprus dispute complicates Turkey's relations with the EU and remains a major stumbling block to the country's EU accession bid. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. [130] Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the first president elected by direct voting. Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. TURKEY: STaTE of EmERgEncY, STaTE of aRbiTRaRY 2 REPoRTERS iThoUT boRdERS SEPTEmbER 2016 The Turkish people took to the streets to face tanks on the night of 15 July 2016, a few hours after a sector of the army, backed by armoured units and fighter planes, went on to the … [431] Currently there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey. [238] In reaction to the failed coup attempt on 15 July 2016, over 160,000 judges, teachers, police and civil servants have been suspended or dismissed, 77,000 have been formally arrested,[239][240] and 130 media organisations, including 16 television broadcasters and 45 newspapers,[241] have been closed by the government of Turkey. Elle a créé des formations paramilitaires en collaboration avec l’extrême droite (le MHP). In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would evolve over the next 200 years into the Ottoman Empire. The first Turkish musicals were also written in this period. A theatrical conservatoire, Darülbedayi-i Osmani (which became the nucleus of the Istanbul City Theatres) was established in 1914. L’arabe a été à nouveau autorisé pour l’appel à la prière (1950), les confréries religieuses sont peu à peu sorties de la clandestinité. [195][196] In 2020, Turkey openly intervened in Libya at the request of the GNA. [27], In 2013, widespread protests erupted in many Turkish provinces, sparked by a plan to demolish Gezi Park but soon growing into general anti-government dissent. Dans sa majorité, il est relativement puritain, nationaliste et conservateur, mais peu tenté par l’islamisme. In the Second Balkan War (1913) the Ottomans managed to recover their former capital Edirne (Adrianople) and its surrounding areas in East Thrace, which was formalised with the Treaty of Constantinople (1913). [38] Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC. In the early years of the Republic, a few studies were published about regional Anatolian dishes but cuisine did not feature heavily in Turkish folkloric studies until the 1980s, when the fledgling tourism industry encouraged the Turkish state to sponsor two food symposia. [166] Turkey was a member of the United Nations Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955, 1961 and 2009–2010. Hora is performed in East Thrace; Zeybek in the Aegean Region, Southern Marmara and East-Central Anatolia Region; Teke in the Western Mediterranean Region; Kaşık Oyunları and Karşılama in West-Central Anatolia, Western Black Sea Region, Southern Marmara Region and Eastern Mediterranean Region; Horon in the Central and Eastern Black Sea Region; Halay in Eastern Anatolia and the Central Anatolia Region; and Bar and Lezginka in the Northeastern Anatolia Region. Arménie [398] The Justice and Development Party (AKP) government, in power since 2002, pursue an explicit policy of Islamization of education to "raise a devout generation" against secular resistance,[399][400] in the process causing lost jobs and educational opportunities for non-religious citizens of Turkey. Tentative de coup d'Etat en Turquie, des morts et des blessés. Approximately 70 to 80 percent of the country's citizens are ethnic Turks. [395] For many decades, the wearing of the Hijab was banned in schools and government buildings because it was viewed as a symbol of political Islam. Acteurs de l'islam entre Allemagne et Turquie The Final of the 2013–14 EuroLeague Women basketball championship was played between two Turkish teams, Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe, and won by Galatasaray. [487][488], Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. ", "Democracy Index 2017: Revenge of the "deplorables, "General Directorate of Judicial Records", "European Commission: Turkey 2015 report", "European Parliament resolution of 14 April 2016 on the 2015 report on Turkey", "Turkey's institutions are failing to comply with good governance principles and combat corruption", "As ISIS attacks mount, Turkey steps up its war on free speech", "The United Nations Organization and Turkey", "Turkey's Relations with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)", "The Republic of Turkey and The Organization of The Islamic Conference", "The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)", "Turkey's relations with the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)", "The Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization (BSEC)", "SCO accepts Afghanistan as observer, Turkey dialogue partner", "No: 253, 26 September 2013, Press Release on Turkey's Membership to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue", "False Friends. The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BC. [263], The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is an ecoregion which covers most of the Pontic Mountains in northern Turkey, while the Caucasus mixed forests extend across the eastern end of the range. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether. Several wild species of tulip are native to Anatolia, and the flower was first introduced to Western Europe with species taken from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Since the fall of the empire in World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and Western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet. En 1924, après avoir instauré la république, Mustapha Kemal a aboli le Califat (l’autorité suprême de l’islam, que les grecs détenaient depuis la prise de La Mecque par les armée ottomane en 1517. Comme la Turquie, le Kirghizistan est [...] un État laïque où l'Islam, qui est [...] pourtant la religion la plus pratiquée, n'est pas considéré comme la religion d'État. Another famous 18th-century master by the name of Hatip Mehmed Efendi (died 1773) is accredited with developing motifs and perhaps early floral designs, although evidence from India appears to contradict some of these reports. [341][needs update], TÜBİTAK is the leading agency for developing science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey. One early master by the pseudonym of Şebek is mentioned posthumously in the earliest Ottoman text on the art known as the Tertib-i Risâle-i Ebrî, which is dated based on internal evidence to after 1615. Or, dans les années 2000, la Turquie est majoritairement acquise à l’AKP quelle que soit la taille des villes. [208][209] Turkey maintains a force of 36,000 troops in Northern Cyprus since 1974. [a][23] After the Ottomans and the other Central Powers lost the war, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. [173] The common threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War led to Turkey's membership of NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with the US. [107][108] In the past, various Kurdish groups have unsuccessfully sought separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdish state, while others have more recently pursued provincial autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. [296] Fatih Birol the head of the International Energy Agency said that fossil fuel subsidies should be redirected, for example to the health system. We will never accept the accusations of genocide". turquie / religion - La Turquie et la Russie ont exprimé l’espoir qu’une réunion très attendue du président Recep Tayyip Erdoğan et du président russe Vladimir Poutine aboutirait à un cessez-le-feu dans la province d’Idlib, en Syrie, où la tension a énormément augmenté la semaine dernière après que la Syrie a tué 34 soldats turcs lors d’une frappe aérienne le 28 février. Études Kurdes n° 3 : un numéro de la revue consacré principalement aux alévis de Turquie Saint Peter founded one of the first churches in Antioch (Antakya), the location of which is regarded by tradition as the spot where he first preached the Gospel, and where the followers of Jesus were called Christians for the first time. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. [205][needs update] Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. The dances, music and songs performed during the rituals of the inhabitants of Anatolia millennia ago are the elements from which the first shows originated. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. [274], Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons. Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center (UMET) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI). Il a fallu les victoires électorales des islamistes en 1994 et 1995, et la formation du gouvernement de Necmettin Erbakan en 1996, pour que l’armée, organisation tutélaire du régime turc, retrouve ses accents kémalistes et engage le combat contre les islamistes. [56][57] Thus, alongside the Turkification of the territory, the culturally Persianized Seljuks set the basis for a Turko-Persian principal culture in Anatolia,[58] which their eventual successors, the Ottomans, would take over.[59][60]. Sujet d'actualité Au Québec l'accommodement raisonnable, un sujet d'actualité. [513][514] By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk. [455] Turkey has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world, with nearly one third (29.5%) of its adult population obese. [354][355], Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the Parliament. Le débat s’est porté sur le thème du foulard islamique (interdit par la loi) et surtout le poids des écoles religieuses (imam hatep) qui accueillent aujourd’hui plus d’un demi-millions d’élèves. There are 600 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts. Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several genres simultaneously: for instance, the poet Nâmık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh (Awakening), while the journalist Şinasi has written, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" (The Poet's Marriage). [445] Basic education in Turkey is said to lag behind other OECD countries, with significant differences between high and low performers. [328] Turkish State Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. The latest of those big earthquakes was the 1999 İzmit earthquake. [281] Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe, and invest a substantial amount of funds for research and development in new technologies related to these fields. [112] On 15 July 2016, an unsuccessful coup attempt tried to oust the government. [110][111] In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing violations of human rights and the rule of law; but the negotiations, effectively on hold since 2018, remain active as of 2020. [288] In 2004, it was estimated that 46 percent of total disposable income was received by the top 20 percent of income earners, while the lowest 20 percent received only 6 percent. [479] Buildings from this era are the Grand Post Office in Istanbul (1905–1909), Tayyare Apartments (1919–1922),[480] Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han (1911–1926),[481] State Art and Sculpture Museum (1927–1930),[482] Ethnography Museum of Ankara (1925–1928),[483] the first Ziraat Bank headquarters in Ankara (1925–1929),[484] the first Türkiye İş Bankası headquarters in Ankara (1926–1929),[485] Bebek Mosque,[486] and Kamer Hatun Mosque. Le Premier ministre, Turgut Özal fut l’un de ses membres les plus illustres. [436][437] Some religious and secular officials have claimed that atheism and deism are growing among Turkish people. The First National Architectural Movement (Birinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımı) in the early 20th century sought to create a new architecture, which was based on motifs from Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said "Our attitude on the Armenian issue has been clear from the beginning. [109], The reforms, combined with unprecedented amounts of funding from foreign loans, spurred rapid economic growth; but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake in Izmit that year),[302] and 2001;[303] resulting in an average of 4 percent GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.