Meanwhile, largely isolated from the rest of Latvia, southern Latgallians adopted Catholicism under Polish/Jesuit influence. Etna - Google Art Project.jpg 5,427 × 4,001; 6.61 MB. [citation needed], Foreign investment in Latvia is still modest compared with the levels in north-central Europe. All three Baltic provinces preserved local laws, German as the local official language and their own parliament, the Landtag. [177], Latvia has three big hydroelectric power stations in Pļaviņu HES (825MW), Rīgas HES (402 MW) and Ķeguma HES-2 (192 MW). [195], Latvian policy in science and technology has set out the long-term goal of transitioning from labor-consuming economy to knowledge-based economy. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became an autonomous Russian province (the Courland Governorate) in 1795, bringing all of what is now Latvia into the Russian Empire. RESIDENT POPULATION ON MARCH 1, 2011 BY ETHNICITY, SEX AND AGE GROUP", "THNICITIES OF RESIDENT POPULATION IN STATISTICAL REGIONS, CITIES UNDER STATE JURISDICTION AND COUNTIES BY LANGUAGE MOSTLY SPOKEN AT HOME; ON 1 MARCH 2011", "Referendum on the Draft Law 'Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, "Results of the referendum on the Draft Law 'Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, "Latvia pushes majority language in schools, leaving parents miffed", "Moscow threatens sanctions against Latvia over removal of Russian from secondary schools", "Government okays transition to Latvian as sole language at schools in 2019", "Statistics of approved parishes in Latvia", "Latvia's Healthcare System is Funded by General Taxation and All Latvians and Foreign Residents Are Guaranteed Medical Care | Find Articles at BNET", "Latvia has worst health care system in Europe :: The Baltic Course | Baltic States news & analytics", "Latvian Health Official Resigns Over Cuts", "The basic indicators of health care, at the end of the year", "The Baltic States and their health systems – From Soviet to EU",, "Typical Latvian Food and Drink Recipes. Latvia have since failed to qualify for another major tournament, though they came close to qualifying for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. [133][134] In 2011, the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities "urged Latvia to allow non-citizens to vote in municipal elections. And from 70 females are 2,3 times more than males. In 2016, Latvia had 8.5 global hectares[99] of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. Country code: LVA Centre code: 43. Still, today there are 290,660 non-citizens in Latvia, which represent 14.1% of the population. [156] Following the introduction of the Euro, Eurobarometer surveys in January 2014 showed support for the Euro to be around 53%, close to the European average. Source: CIA. Novelist. In the summer of 1988, a national movement, coalescing in the Popular Front of Latvia, was opposed by the Interfront. Latvia co-operates with Estonia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives: Future co-operation will include sharing of national infrastructures for training purposes and specialisation of training areas (BALTTRAIN) and collective formation of battalion-sized contingents for use in the NATO rapid-response force. [205], The Latvian Song and Dance Festival is an important event in Latvian culture and social life. The University of Daugavpils is another significant centre of education. [209], Starting in 2019 Latvia hosts the inaugural Riga Jurmala Music Festival, a new festival in which world-famous orchestras and conductors perform across four weekends during the summer. [69] Some managed to escape arrest and joined the partisans. [119] In 2013 Riga hosted the annual Northern Future Forum, a two-day informal meeting of the prime ministers of the Nordic-Baltic countries and the UK. Back to top For the women's team, see. [15][16][17] Since Latvia's independence in 1918, it has been referred to as one of the Baltic states. [20] Aleksejs Višņakovs is the most capped active player for Latvia with 81 appearances, as of November 2020. State administrators were liquidated and replaced by Soviet cadres. Saint Meinhard of Segeberg arrived in Ikšķile, in 1184, traveling with merchants to Livonia, on a Catholic mission to convert the population from their original pagan beliefs. [35], Although the local people had contact with the outside world for centuries, they became more fully integrated into the European socio-political system in the 12th century. 28 mars 2017 - Découvrez le tableau "National Football Team Logo" de Sport Renaissance sur Pinterest. : Good enough to play in Latvia for a while. Under this division Riga region includes large parts of what traditionally is considered Vidzeme, Courland, and Zemgale. Creator and editor of Approximately 30,000 performers altogether participate in the event. [81] The government denationalized private property confiscated by the Soviets, returning it or compensating the owners for it, and privatized most state-owned industries, reintroducing the prewar currency. Most transit traffic uses these and half the cargo is crude oil and oil products. [citation needed], In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were lands with their rulers: Vanema, Ventava, Bandava, Piemare, Duvzare, Upmale, Sēlija, Koknese, Jersika, Tālava and Adzele. [11][12] This resulted in Latvia being the first and only Baltic team, as well as being the second former-Soviet state in Europe at the time (after Russia) to qualify for a European Championship. [37] Together with southern Estonia, these conquered areas formed the crusader state that became known as Terra Mariana or Livonia. [41] Though the duchy was a vassal state to Poland, it retained a considerable degree of autonomy and experienced a golden age in the 16th century. 70% percent of the mires are untouched by civilization, and they are a refuge for many rare species of plants and animals. Latvian food is generally quite fatty, and uses few spices. It has survived in German Baltic families to this day, in spite of their dispersal to Germany, the United States, Canada and other countries in the early 20th century. [51] The constitution was partly suspended by Kārlis Ulmanis after his coup in 1934 but reaffirmed in 1990. [85] Latvia's Red Book (Endangered Species List of Latvia), which was established in 1977, contains 112 plant species and 119 animal species. [23] Latvians and Livonians are the indigenous people of Latvia. Latvia won the first leg 1–0, through top goalscorer, Māris Verpakovskis. On 1 July 2016, Latvia became a member of the OECD.[82]. [80], Language and citizenship laws have been opposed by many Russophones. For example, one of the most popular celebrations is Jāņi, a pagan celebration of the summer solstice—which Latvians celebrate on the feast day of St. John the Baptist. [93] There are 706 specially state-level protected natural areas in Latvia: four national parks, one biosphere reserve, 42 nature parks, nine areas of protected landscapes, 260 nature reserves, four strict nature reserves, 355 nature monuments, seven protected marine areas and 24 microreserves. Real GDP growth of 5.5 percent in 2011 was underpinned by export growth and a recovery in domestic demand. Latvia is a member of the European Union, Eurozone, NATO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations, CBSS, the IMF, NB8, NIB, OECD, OSCE, and WTO. In Boxing, Mairis Briedis is the first Latvian to win a boxing world title, having held the WBC cruiserweight title from 2017 to 2018, and the WBO cruiserweight title in 2019. The Latvia national football team (Latvian: Latvijas futbola izlase) represents Latvia in international football and is controlled by the Latvian Football Federation, the governing body for football in Latvia. In 2010 Latvia launched a Residence by Investment program (Golden Visa) in order to attract foreign investors and make local economy benefit from it. Translated from French into German by . and Sovieticised. [61] The Soviet Union incorporated Latvia on 5 August 1940, as The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic. The largest religion in Latvia is Christianity (79%). There were 290,660 "non-citizens" living in Latvia or 14.1% of Latvian residents, mainly Russian settlers who arrived after the occupation of 1940 and their descendants. [102] Common species of wildlife in Latvia include deer, wild boar, moose, lynx, bear, fox, beaver and wolves. On 18 February 2012, Latvia held a constitutional referendum on whether to adopt Russian as a second official language. [175], National road network in Latvia totals 1675 km of main roads, 5473 km of regional roads and 13 064 km of local roads. A History of Rome, M Cary and HH Scullard, p455-457, Macmillan Press. Flying around LATVIA . Latvia has a total area of 64,559 km2 (24,926 sq mi) of which 62,157 km2 (23,999 sq mi) land, 18,159 km2 (7,011 sq mi) agricultural land,[83] 34,964 km2 (13,500 sq mi) forest land[84] and 2,402 km2 (927 sq mi) inland water. In late 2018 the National Archives of Latvia released a full alphabetical index of some 10,000 people recruited as agents or informants by the Soviet KGB. The Latvia national football team (Latvian: Latvijas futbola izlase) represents Latvia in international football and is controlled by the Latvian Football Federation, the governing body for football in Latvia. [citation needed], Estonian and Latvian forces defeated the Germans at the Battle of Wenden in June 1919,[50] and a massive attack by a predominantly German force—the West Russian Volunteer Army—under Pavel Bermondt-Avalov was repelled in November. [170], The IMF concluded the First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Republic of Latvia in July 2012 announcing that Latvia's economy has been recovering strongly since 2010, following the deep downturn in 2008–09. [179] The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 73.19 years (68.13 years male, 78.53 years female). Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of the Order of Livonia, formed the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. [19] Its capital and largest city is Riga; other notable major cities in Latvia are Daugavpils, Liepāja, Jelgava and Jūrmala. [113] Joint Nordic-Baltic co-operation initiatives include the education programme NordPlus[114] and mobility programmes for public administration,[115] business and industry[116] and culture. One of the Baltic countries, whose capital is Riga. Amber, fossilized tree resin, is one of Latvia's most important cultural symbols. Latvian paramilitary and Auxiliary Police units established by the occupation authority participated in the Holocaust and other atrocities. [56]:78–96 The occupation was followed immediately by SS Einsatzgruppen troops who were to act in accordance with the Nazi Generalplan Ost which required the population of Latvia to be cut by 50 percent. UEFA European Championship qualification record, Latvia national football team results (2020–present), Progression of Latvia association football caps record, Progression of Latvia association football goalscoring record, "1938 FIFA World Cup France ™ Preliminaries", "Vitalijs Astafjevs – Century of International Appearances",, European national association football teams, Pages using infobox national football team with unknown parameters, Articles containing Latvian-language text, Articles with Latvian-language sources (lv), Pages using national squad without sport or team link, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 13:50. On occasions, especially in 1944, opposing Latvian troops faced each other in battle.[56]:299. [124][131], Approximately 206,000 non-citizens [132]– including stateless persons – have limited access to some political rights – only citizens are allowed to participate in parliamentary or municipal elections, although there are no limitations in regards to joining political parties or other political organizations. [56]:64[56]:56, Under German occupation, Latvia was administered as part of Reichskommissariat Ostland. The sole official language of Latvia is Latvian, which belongs to the Baltic language sub-group of the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. E-sport. In the same year, the United States of America exported $58.2 million of goods and services to Latvia and imported $87.9 million. Latvia (; ), officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states.It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, as well as a maritime border to the west alongside Sweden. It has 44 diplomatic and consular missions and maintains 34 embassies and 9 permanent representations abroad. [173], Latvian Railway's main network consists of 1,860 km of which 1,826 km is 1,520 mm Russian gauge railway of which 251 km are electrified, making it the longest railway network in the Baltic States. BK Ventspils, which participates in EuroChallenge, is the second strongest basketball club in Latvia, previously winning LBL eight times and BBL in 2013. [211], Grey peas and ham are generally considered as staple foods of Latvians. [207], After incorporation into the Soviet Union, Latvian artists and writers were forced to follow the socialist realism style of art. [164] As of 2015, Latvia is estimated to have the lowest male-to-female ratio in the world, at 0.85 males/female. [83] With the dismantling of collective farms, the area devoted to farming decreased dramatically – now farms are predominantly small. In the recent years a couple of dozen of wind farms as well as biogas or biomass power stations of different scale have been built in Latvia. Another notable language of Latvia is the nearly extinct Livonian language of the Finnic branch of the Uralic language family, which enjoys protection by law; Latgalian – as a dialect of Latvian is also protected by Latvian law but as a historical variation of the Latvian language. [citation needed], Latvia operates Inčukalns underground gas storage facility, one of the largest underground gas storage facilities in Europe and the only one in the Baltic states. [79], The Republic of Latvia declared the end of the transitional period and restored full independence on 21 August 1991, in the aftermath of the failed Soviet coup attempt. Eastern Latvia was cleared of Red Army forces by Latvian and Polish troops in early 1920 (from the Polish perspective the Battle of Daugavpils was a part of the Polish–Soviet War). All of the minority schools (Jewish, Polish, Belarusian, Estonian, Lithuanian) were closed down leaving only two media of instructions in the schools: Latvian and Russian. [112] Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB-8) is the joint co-operation of the governments of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden. [37] Riga became an important point of east–west trading[37] and formed close cultural links with Western Europe. [37] The local people, however, did not convert to Christianity as readily as the Church had hoped. [48], The emancipation of the serfs took place in Courland in 1817 and in Vidzeme in 1819. Pro-independence Popular Front of Latvia candidates gained a two-thirds majority in the Supreme Council in the March 1990 democratic elections. There are 37 foreign embassies and 11 international organisations in Latvia's capital Riga. Currently, VEF Rīga, which competes in EuroCup, is the strongest professional basketball club in Latvia. However, as a consequence of centuries of Russian rule (1710–1918) and later Soviet occupation, 26.9% of the population of Latvia are ethnic Russians,[24] some of whom (10.7% of Latvian residents[25]) have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all. Apart from road and railway connections, Ventspils is also linked to oil extraction fields and transportation routes of Russian Federation via system of two pipelines from Polotsk, Belarus. Latvia participates in several NATO Centres of Excellence: Civil-Military Co-operation in the Netherlands, Cooperative Cyber Defence in Estonia and Energy Security in Lithuania. [92], Most of the country is composed of fertile lowland plains and moderate hills. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July. Mires occupy 9.9% of Latvia's territory. At this time, songs often made fun of the characteristics of Soviet life and were concerned about preserving Latvian identity. Latvia has won the Baltic Cup championship a record 13 times, more than any other country in the history of the tournament. [36] The first missionaries, sent by the Pope, sailed up the Daugava River in the late 12th century, seeking converts. The only other airport handling regular commercial flights is Liepāja International Airport. Frå Wiktionary - den frie ordboka. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of the economy, but it soon suffered from the effects of the Great Depression. [183], The share of ethnic Latvians had fallen from 77% (1,467,035) in 1935 to 52% (1,387,757) in 1989. : L'Estonie, la Lettonie et la Lituanie ont ressurgi de l'occupation soviétique. [68] This operation had the desired effect of reducing the anti Soviet partisan activity. French-English online dictionary (Dictionnaire Anglais-Français) developed to help you share your knowledge with others. airBaltic is the Latvian flag carrier airline and a low-cost carrier with hubs in all three Baltic States, but main base in Riga, Latvia. [100] In 2016 Latvia used 6.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. Egils Rozenbergs : Tapisseries de Basse Lice au Mobilier National - Documentaire de Nicolas Patrzynski (Version Lettonne) 1 year ago. [4], The Saeima, Latvia's parliament, was again elected in 1993. According to statistics in late 2013, 45% of the population supported the introduction of the euro, while 52% opposed it. Latvia has had many famous hockey stars like Helmuts Balderis, Artūrs Irbe, Kārlis Skrastiņš and Sandis Ozoliņš and more recently Zemgus Girgensons, whom the Latvian people have strongly supported in international and NHL play, expressed through the dedication of using the NHL's All Star Voting to bring Zemgus to number one in voting. Includes free vocabulary trainer, verb tables and pronunciation function. The resulting people's assembly immediately requested admission into the USSR, which the Soviet Union granted. Latvia, alongside their Baltic rivals, Lithuania and Estonia, have also participated in the local sub-regional Baltic Cup tournament, which takes place every two years. 13-time winners – 1928, 1932, 1933, 1936, 1937, 1993, 1995, 2001, 2003, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2016, 2018, As of 19 November 2019 after match against  Austria[18], Vitālijs Astafjevs played for Latvia more than anyone else, with 167 caps from 1992 to 2010. The festival is the biggest of its kind in the world and is held every two years in a different host city. '[75], In the second half of the 1980s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev started to introduce political and economic reforms in the Soviet Union that were called glasnost and perestroika. On 5 October 1939, Latvia was forced to accept a "mutual assistance" pact with the Soviet Union, granting the Soviets the right to station between 25,000 and 30,000 troops on Latvian territory. Summers have average temperatures of around 19 °C (66 °F), with extremes of 35 °C (95 °F). [citation needed] Thus, the mostly peasant local pagan heritage was preserved, partly merging with Christian traditions. The 100-seat unicameral Latvian parliament, the Saeima, is elected by direct popular vote every four years. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century is often regarded by Latvians as a classical era of Latvian culture. By the spring of 1919, there were actually three governments: the Provisional government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis, supported by Tautas padome and the Inter-Allied Commission of Control; the Latvian Soviet government led by Pēteris Stučka, supported by the Red Army; and the Provisional government headed by Andrievs Niedra and supported by the Baltische Landeswehr and the German Freikorps unit Iron Division. Latvia were placed in Group 8, alongside Austria and Lithuania. [78], However, the central power in Moscow continued to regard Latvia as a Soviet republic in 1990 and 1991. World Population Real Time Clock. Mais suffisamment bon pour la Lettonie. The Soviets reoccupied the country in 1944–1945, and further deportations followed as the country was collectivised [200] There were 59 hospitals in Latvia in 2009, down from 94 in 2007 and 121 in 2006. [46], The capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 and the Treaty of Nystad, ending the Great Northern War in 1721, gave Vidzeme to Russia (it became part of the Riga Governorate). [196] By 2020 the government aims to spend 1.5% of GDP on research and development, with half of the investments coming from the private sector.